Though one could argue that this fight had already happened with McCullough v. Maryland, the Nullification Crisis, and the Civil War.
(Overlook the contradiction with the 10th Amendment)
Might makes right, remember?
It would be interesting to see a breakdown of relative power between the states and the feds in 1800, 1900, and 2000. It’s no secret what the trend is, but the details might be interesting.
As Robert said, I suspect the change really happened with the Civil War. Until then, the states had been pretty much semi-sovereign with respect to internal affairs. The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment established the idea that rights were not merely things the federal government was prohibited from interfering in, but rather were things that all Americans were entitled to, which is closer to the notion of civil rights we have today.